Mifare 1k Contactless Smart Cards For Access Control Systems

Mifare 1k Contactless Smart Cards For Access Control Systems

The mifare Classic card has some built-in security features. The communication is encrypted by the proprietary stream cipher CRYPTO1.Keys The 48-bit keys used for authentication are stored in the sector trailer of each sector . mifare Classic uses symmetric keys.Authentication Protocol mifare Classic makes use of a mutual three pass authentication protocol that is based on ISO 9798-2 according to the mifare documentation.

An RFID system consists of a transponder (card) and a reader . The reader contains a radio frequency module, a control unit and a coupling element to the card. The card contains a coupling element and a microchip. The control unit of a mifare Classic enabled reader is typically a mifare microchip with a closed design. This microchip communicates with the application software and executes commands from it. Note that the actual modulation of commands is done by this microchip and not by the application software. The design of the microchip of the card is closed and so is the communication protocol between card and reader.

The mifare Classic is a contactless smart card that is used extensively in access control for office buildings, payment systems for public transport, and other applications.Over the last few years, more and more systems adopted RFID and contactless smart cards as replacement for bar codes, magnetic stripe cards and paper tickets for a wide variety of applications. Contactless smart cards consist of a small piece of memory that can be accessed wirelessly, but unlike RFID tags, they also have some computing capabilities. Most of these cards implement some sort of simple symmetric-key cryptography, making them suitable for applications that require access control to the smart card’s memory.A number of large-scale applications make use of contactless smart cards. For example, they are used for payment in several public transport systems like the Oyster card in London and the OV-Chipkaart in The Netherlands, among others. Many countries have already incorporated a contactless smart card in their electronic passports. Many office buildings and even secured facilities like airports and military bases use contactless smart cards for access control.There is a huge variety of cards on the market. They differ in size, casing, memory,and computing power. They also differ in the security features they provide.

According to the Mifare Classic complies with parts 1 to 3 of the ISO standard 14443-A, specifying the physical characteristics, the radio frequency interface, and the anti-collision protocol. The Mifare Classic does not implement part 4 of the standard, describing the transmission protocol, but instead uses its own secure communication layer. In this layer, the Mifare Classic uses the proprietary stream cipher CRYPTO1 to provide data confidentiality and mutual authentication between card and reader.
The Mifare Classic tag is essentially a memory chip with secure wireless communication capabilities. The memory of the tag is divided into sectors, each of which is further divided into blocks of sixteen bytes each. The last block of each sector is the sector trailer and stores two secret keys and the access conditions for that sector.To perform an operation on a specific block, the reader must first authenticate for the sector containing that block. The access conditions determine which of the two keys must be used.

 MIFARE 1K Cards are reported the most widely used contactless smartcard technology for smart card transactions. MIFARE Classic 1k contactless technology introduced in 1994. First transport scheme in Seoul using MIFARE Classic 1k in 1996.

Mifare Classic 1K Contactless Card,MIFARE Classic contactless card with 1K bytes EEPROM that complies with ISO 14443A.The mifare Classic 1K S50 is the most widely used contactless smart card in the market. Contactless smartcards are used in many applications nowadays. Contactless cards are based on radio frequency identification technology (RFID). The mifare Classic 1k S50 card has 16 sectors of 4 data blocks each. The mifare Classic 1K S50 design and implementation details are kept secret by its manufacturer. The mifare Classic 1K S50 card is a member of the mifare product family and is compliant with ISO 14443 up to part 3. ISO 14443 part 4 defines the high-level protocol.

The mifare Classic 1K card has some built-in security features. The communication is encrypted by the proprietary stream cipher CRYPTO1.Keys The 48-bit keys used for authentication are stored in the sector trailer of each sector . mifare Classic 1K S50 uses symmetric keys.Authentication Protocol mifare Classic makes use of a mutual three pass authentication protocol that is based on ISO 9798-2 according to the mifare documentation.

The mifare Classic 1K S50 is a contactless smart card that is used extensively in access control for office buildings, payment systems for public transport, and other applications. According to the Mifare Classic 1K S50 complies with parts 1 to 3 of the ISO standard 14443-A, specifying the physical characteristics, the radio frequency interface, and the anti-collision protocol. The Mifare Classic 1K S50 does not implement part 4 of the standard, describing the transmission protocol, but instead uses its own secure communication layer. In this layer, the Mifare Classic 1K S50 uses the proprietary stream cipher CRYPTO1 to provide data confidentiality and mutual authentication between card and reader.

The Mifare Classic tag is essentially a memory chip with secure wireless communication capabilities. The memory of the tag is divided into sectors, each of which is further divided into blocks of sixteen bytes each. The last block of each sector is the sector trailer and stores two secret keys and the access conditions for that sector.To perform an operation on a specific block, the reader must first authenticate for the sector containing that block. The access conditions determine which of the two keys must be used.

MIFARE Classic 1K was the first IC to be used in high volume public transport ticketing in a major transport project in Seoul, Korea. Continuing this success, cities such as London, Beijing, Taipei, Pusan and many more are adopting MIFARE as the contactless interface platform for the present and future.MIFARE Classic 1K is primarily used in closed systems as fixed value tickets (e.g. weekly or monthly travel passes) or as tickets where value is extracted from the card by the service provider.From May 2010 onwards, a MIFARE Classic 1K variant is also available with a 7 Byte UID. For future outlook regarding the 4 Byte UIDs see 4-7 Byte UID.

Mifare 1K Cards:1024 byte memory is organised as sixteen sectors, each of which is made up of four blocks and each block is 16 bytes long. The first block in the memory (Block 0) is read-only and is set in the factory to contain the four-byte serial number (UID), check bytes and manufacturers data. The last block of each sector (Blocks 3, 7, 11, 15……59, 63) is the Sector Trailer Block which contains the two security Key codes (Key A and Key B) and the Access bits that define how the sector can be accessed.Taking into account the Serial Number/ Manufacturers Block and the Sector Trailer Blocks then there are 752 bytes of free memory for user storage. For all Read and Write operations the Mifare card memory is addressed by Block number (in hexadecimal format).

Mifare 1K Reader:A reader that supports Mifare 1K card (obviously) which is to be exact a reader that supports ISO14443A/B or ISO15693 (contactless standard). A reader that can read contactless standards compliant contactless using the same framework as ISO7816 compliant contact cards.MIFARE Classic is predominantly used in public transport infrastructure, there are a considerable number of installations using the chip technology also in access management implementations.